Tiffany B. Brown

SGML Character Entities

Also see: Named character references

This list is modified from the World Wide Web Consortium’s list of entities for readability. The World Wide Web Consortium’s site has more detailed information about entities and their use.

Values in the "Text code" column need to be preceeded by "&" and followed by ";"

NOTE: Not all entities are supported by all browsers. If you see an empty rectangle that does not match the description of the character, then your browser will not display that character.

Character entity references for ISO 8859-1 characters

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
nbsp     no-break space = non-breaking space,

U+00A0 ISOnum

iexcl ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1 ISOnum
cent ¢ ¢ cent sign, U+00A2 ISOnum
pound £ £ pound sign, U+00A3 ISOnum
curren ¤ ¤ currency sign, U+00A4 ISOnum
yen ¥ ¥ yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5 ISOnum
brvbar ¦ ¦ broken bar = broken vertical bar,

U+00A6 ISOnum

sect § § section sign, U+00A7 ISOnum
uml ¨ ¨ diaeresis = spacing diaeresis,

U+00A8 ISOdia

copy © © copyright sign, U+00A9 ISOnum
ordf ª ª feminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA ISOnum
laquo « « left-pointing double angle quotation mark

= left pointing guillemet, U+00AB ISOnum

not ¬ ¬ not sign, U+00AC ISOnum
shy ­ ­ soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen,

U+00AD ISOnum

reg ® ® registered sign = registered trade mark sign,

U+00AE ISOnum

macr ¯ ¯ macron = spacing macron = overline

= APL overbar, U+00AF ISOdia

deg ° ° degree sign, U+00B0 ISOnum
plusmn ± ± plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign,

U+00B1 ISOnum

sup2 ² ² superscript two = superscript digit two

= squared, U+00B2 ISOnum

sup3 ³ ³ superscript three = superscript digit three

= cubed, U+00B3 ISOnum

acute ´ ´ acute accent = spacing acute,

U+00B4 ISOdia

micro µ µ micro sign, U+00B5 ISOnum
para ¶ pilcrow sign = paragraph sign,

U+00B6 ISOnum

middot · · middle dot = Georgian comma

= Greek middle dot, U+00B7 ISOnum

cedil ¸ ¸ cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8 ISOdia
sup1 ¹ ¹ superscript one = superscript digit one,

U+00B9 ISOnum

ordm º º masculine ordinal indicator,

U+00BA ISOnum

raquo » » right-pointing double angle quotation mark

= right pointing guillemet, U+00BB ISOnum

frac14 ¼ ¼ vulgar fraction one quarter

= fraction one quarter, U+00BC ISOnum

frac12 ½ ½ vulgar fraction one half

= fraction one half, U+00BD ISOnum

frac34 ¾ ¾ vulgar fraction three quarters

= fraction three quarters, U+00BE ISOnum

iquest ¿ ¿ inverted question mark

= turned question mark, U+00BF ISOnum

Agrave À À latin capital letter A with grave

= latin capital letter A grave,

U+00C0 ISOlat1

Aacute Á

Á latin capital letter A with acute,

U+00C1 ISOlat1

Acirc   latin capital letter A with circumflex,

U+00C2 ISOlat1

Atilde à à latin capital letter A with tilde,

U+00C3 ISOlat1

Auml Ä Ä latin capital letter A with diaeresis,

U+00C4 ISOlat1

Aring Å

Å latin capital letter A with ring above

= latin capital letter A ring,

U+00C5 ISOlat1

AElig Æ Æ latin capital letter AE

= latin capital ligature AE,

U+00C6 ISOlat1

Ccedil Ç Ç latin capital letter C with cedilla,

U+00C7 ISOlat1

Egrave È È latin capital letter E with grave,

U+00C8 ISOlat1

Eacute É É latin capital letter E with acute,

U+00C9 ISOlat1

Ecirc Ê Ê latin capital letter E with circumflex,

U+00CA ISOlat1

Euml Ë Ë latin capital letter E with diaeresis,

U+00CB ISOlat1

Igrave Ì Ì latin capital letter I with grave,

U+00CC ISOlat1

Iacute Í Í latin capital letter I with acute,

U+00CD ISOlat1

Icirc Î Î latin capital letter I with circumflex,

U+00CE ISOlat1

Iuml Ï Ï latin capital letter I with diaeresis,

U+00CF ISOlat1

ETH Ð Ð latin capital letter ETH, U+00D0 ISOlat1
Ntilde Ñ Ñ latin capital letter N with tilde,

U+00D1 ISOlat1

Ograve Ò Ò latin capital letter O with grave,

U+00D2 ISOlat1

Oacute Ó Ó latin capital letter O with acute,

U+00D3 ISOlat1

Ocirc Ô Ô latin capital letter O with circumflex,

U+00D4 ISOlat1

Otilde Õ Õ latin capital letter O with tilde,

U+00D5 ISOlat1

Ouml Ö Ö latin capital letter O with diaeresis,

U+00D6 ISOlat1

times × × multiplication sign, U+00D7 ISOnum
Oslash Ø Ø latin capital letter O with stroke

= latin capital letter O slash,

U+00D8 ISOlat1

Ugrave Ù Ù latin capital letter U with grave,

U+00D9 ISOlat1

Uacute Ú Ú latin capital letter U with acute,

U+00DA ISOlat1

Ucirc Û Û latin capital letter U with circumflex,

U+00DB ISOlat1

Uuml Ü Ü latin capital letter U with diaeresis,

U+00DC ISOlat1

Yacute Ý Ý latin capital letter Y with acute,

U+00DD ISOlat1

THORN Þ Þ latin capital letter THORN,

U+00DE ISOlat1

szlig ß ß latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed,

U+00DF ISOlat1

agrave à à latin small letter a with grave

= latin small letter a grave,

U+00E0 ISOlat1

aacute á á latin small letter a with acute,

U+00E1 ISOlat1

acirc â â latin small letter a with circumflex,

U+00E2 ISOlat1

atilde ã ã latin small letter a with tilde,

U+00E3 ISOlat1

auml ä ä latin small letter a with diaeresis,

U+00E4 ISOlat1

aring å å latin small letter a with ring above

= latin small letter a ring,

U+00E5 ISOlat1

aelig æ æ latin small letter ae

= latin small ligature ae, U+00E6 ISOlat1

ccedil ç ç latin small letter c with cedilla,

U+00E7 ISOlat1

egrave è è latin small letter e with grave,

U+00E8 ISOlat1

eacute é é latin small letter e with acute,

U+00E9 ISOlat1

ecirc ê ê latin small letter e with circumflex,

U+00EA ISOlat1

euml ë ë latin small letter e with diaeresis,

U+00EB ISOlat1

igrave

ì

ì latin small letter i with grave,

U+00EC ISOlat1

iacute í í latin small letter i with acute,

U+00ED ISOlat1

icirc

î

î latin small letter i with circumflex,

U+00EE ISOlat1

iuml ï ï latin small letter i with diaeresis,

U+00EF ISOlat1

eth

ð

ð latin small letter eth, U+00F0 ISOlat1
ntilde

ñ

ñ latin small letter n with tilde,

U+00F1 ISOlat1

ograve ò ò latin small letter o with grave,

U+00F2 ISOlat1

oacute ó ó latin small letter o with acute,

U+00F3 ISOlat1

ocirc ô ô latin small letter o with circumflex,

U+00F4 ISOlat1

otilde

õ

õ latin small letter o with tilde,

U+00F5 ISOlat1

ouml

ö

ö latin small letter o with diaeresis,

U+00F6 ISOlat1

divide ÷ ÷ division sign, U+00F7 ISOnum
oslash ø ø latin small letter o with stroke,

= latin small letter o slash,

U+00F8 ISOlat1

ugrave ù ù latin small letter u with grave,

U+00F9 ISOlat1

uacute ú ú latin small letter u with acute,

U+00FA ISOlat1

ucirc û û latin small letter u with circumflex,

U+00FB ISOlat1

uuml

ü

ü latin small letter u with diaeresis,

U+00FC ISOlat1

yacute ý ý latin small letter y with acute,

U+00FD ISOlat1

thorn þ þ latin small letter thorn,

U+00FE ISOlat1

yuml ÿ ÿ latin small letter y with diaeresis,

U+00FF ISOlat1

Character entity references for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
fnof ƒ ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech
Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
Alpha Α Α greek capital letter alpha, U+0391
Beta Β Β greek capital letter beta, U+0392
Gamma Γ Γ greek capital letter gamma,

U+0393 ISOgrk3

Delta Δ Δ greek capital letter delta,

U+0394 ISOgrk3

Epsilon Ε Ε greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
Zeta Ζ Ζ greek capital letter zeta, U+0396
Eta Η Η greek capital letter eta, U+0397
Theta Θ Θ greek capital letter theta,

U+0398 ISOgrk3

Iota Ι Ι greek capital letter iota, U+0399
Kappa Κ Κ greek capital letter kappa, U+039A
Lambda Λ Λ greek capital letter lambda,

U+039B ISOgrk3

Mu Μ Μ greek capital letter mu, U+039C
Nu Ν Ν greek capital letter nu, U+039D
Xi Ξ Ξ greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
Omicron Ο Ο greek capital letter omicron, U+039F
Pi Π Π greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
Rho Ρ Ρ greek capital letter rho, U+03A1
Sigma Σ Σ greek capital letter sigma,

U+03A3 ISOgrk3

Tau Τ Τ greek capital letter tau, U+03A4
Upsilon Υ Υ greek capital letter upsilon,

U+03A5 ISOgrk3

Phi Φ Φ greek capital letter phi,

U+03A6 ISOgrk3

Chi Χ Χ greek capital letter chi, U+03A7
Psi Ψ Ψ greek capital letter psi,

U+03A8 ISOgrk3

Omega Ω Ω greek capital letter omega,

U+03A9 ISOgrk3

alpha α α greek small letter alpha,

U+03B1 ISOgrk3

beta β β greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
gamma γ γ greek small letter gamma,

U+03B3 ISOgrk3

delta δ δ greek small letter delta,

U+03B4 ISOgrk3

epsilon ε ε greek small letter epsilon,

U+03B5 ISOgrk3

zeta ζ ζ greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
eta

η

η greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
theta θ θ greek small letter theta,

U+03B8 ISOgrk3

iota ι ι greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
kappa κ κ greek small letter kappa,

U+03BA ISOgrk3

lambda λ λ greek small letter lambda,

U+03BB ISOgrk3

mu μ μ greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
nu

ν

ν greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
xi

ξ

ξ greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
omicron ο ο greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
pi π π greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
rho

ρ

ρ greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
sigmaf ς

ς greek small letter final sigma,

U+03C2 ISOgrk3

sigma σ σ greek small letter sigma,

U+03C3 ISOgrk3

tau τ τ greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
upsilon υ υ greek small letter upsilon,

U+03C5 ISOgrk3

phi φ φ greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
chi

χ

χ greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
psi ψ ψ greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
omega ω ω greek small letter omega,

U+03C9 ISOgrk3

thetasym ϑ ϑ greek small letter theta symbol,

U+03D1 NEW

upsih ϒ ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol,

U+03D2 NEW

piv ϖ ϖ greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3

General Punctuation

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
bull • bullet = black small circle,

U+2022 ISOpub

hellip … horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader,

U+2026 ISOpub

prime ′ prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
Prime ″ double prime = seconds = inches,

U+2033 ISOtech

oline ‾ overline = spacing overscore,

U+203E NEW

frasl ⁄ fraction slash, U+2044 NEW

Letterlike Symbols

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
weierp ℘ script capital P = power set

= Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso

image ℑ blackletter capital I = imaginary part,

U+2111 ISOamso

real ℜ blackletter capital R = real part symbol,

U+211C ISOamso

trade ™ trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
alefsym ℵ alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW

Arrows

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
larr ← leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
uarr ↑ upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum
rarr → rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
darr ↓ downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
harr ↔ left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
crarr ↵ downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
lArr ⇐ leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech
uArr ⇑ upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
rArr ⇒ rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech
dArr ⇓ downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
hArr ⇔ left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa

Mathematical Operators

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
forall ∀ for all, U+2200 ISOtech
part ∂ partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
exist ∃ there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
empty ∅ empty set = null set = diameter,

U+2205 ISOamso

nabla ∇ nabla = backward difference,

U+2207 ISOtech

isin ∈ element of, U+2208 ISOtech
notin ∉ not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
ni ∋ contains as member, U+220B ISOtech
prod ∏ n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb
sum ∑ n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb
minus − minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
lowast ∗ asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
radic √ square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
prop ∝ proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
infin ∞ infinity, U+221E ISOtech
ang ∠ angle, U+2220 ISOamso
and ∧ logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
or ∨ logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
cap ∩ intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
cup ∪ union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
int ∫ integral, U+222B ISOtech
there4 ∴ therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
sim ∼ tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech
cong ≅ approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
asymp ≈ almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
ne ≠ not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
equiv ≡ identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
le ≤ less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
ge ≥ greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
sub ⊂ subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
sup ⊃ superset of, U+2283 ISOtech
nsub 𕟤 not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
sube ⊆ subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
supe ⊇ superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
oplus ⊕ circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
otimes ⊗ circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
perp ⊥ up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
sdot ⋅ dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb

Miscellaneous Technical

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
lceil ⌈ left ceiling = apl upstile,

U+2308 ISOamsc

rceil ⌉ right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
lfloor ⌊ left floor = apl downstile,

U+230A ISOamsc

rfloor ⌋ right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
lang 〈 left-pointing angle bracket = bra,

U+2329 ISOtech

rang 〉 right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech

Geometric Shapes

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
loz ◊ lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub

Miscellaneous Symbols

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
spades ♠ black spade suit (filled, not hollow), U+2660 ISOpub
clubs ♣ black club suit = shamrock,

U+2663 ISOpub

hearts ♥ black heart suit = valentine,

U+2665 ISOpub

diams ♦ black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub

Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
quot " " quotation mark = APL quote, U+0022 ISONEW
amp & & ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum
lt &#60; < less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum
gt &#62; > greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum

Latin Extended-A

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
OElig &#338; Πlatin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2
oelig &#339; œ latin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2
Scaron &#352; Š latin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2
scaron &#353; š latin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2
Yuml &#376; Ÿ latin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2

Spacing Modifier Letters

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
circ &#710; ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub
tilde &#732; ˜ small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia

General Punctuation

Text code Numerical code What it looks like Description, extras
ensp &#8194; en space, U+2002 ISOpub
emsp &#8195; em space, U+2003 ISOpub
thinsp &#8201; thin space, U+2009 ISOpub
zwnj &#8204; zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070
zwj &#8205; zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070
lrm &#8206; left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070
rlm &#8207; right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070
ndash &#8211; en dash, U+2013 ISOpub
mdash &#8212; em dash, U+2014 ISOpub
lsquo &#8216; left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISONEW
rsquo &#8217; right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISONEW
sbquo &#8218; single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW
ldquo &#8220; left double quotation mark, U+201C ISONEW
rdquo &#8221; right double quotation mark, U+201D ISONEW
bdquo &#8222; double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW
dagger &#8224; dagger, U+2020 ISOpub
Dagger &#8225; double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub
permil &#8240; per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech
lsaquo &#8249; single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed
rsaquo &#8250; single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed
euro &#8364; euro sign, U+20AC NEW

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